The Kara Sea

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The Kara Sea was formerly known as Scythicus Oceano Mare glaciers or longer, with these names, in the old maps of the sixteenth century. Since closed by ice most of the year remained largely unexplored until the late nineteenth century.
In 1556 Stephen Borough (1525-84), browse a Searchthrift to reach the river Obi, but was stopped by ice and fog at the entrance to the Kara Sea. Until 1580 there was another English expedition, to Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in an attempt to find the passage in the Northeast, a step toward the Pacific. Also failed in England and lost interest in the search.
In 1736-37, the Russian admiral Stepan Malygin conducted a trip to the island Dolgiy in the Barents Sea. The two ships of this expedition were the first Perviy with command and Malygin andalusia Vtoroy, headed by Captain A. Skuratov. After entering the little explored Kara Sea, sailed up the River Obi. Malygin take careful observations of the until then almost unknown area of the Arctic coast of Russia. With this knowledge was able to draw the first accurate map of the arctic shores of the Pechora River and the River Obi.
In 1878 the Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiold, sets sail from Gothenburg on the ship Vega, navigating along the Siberian coast, crossed the Kara Sea, despite the bags of ice to reach the 180A in early September. Trapped by the ice in the winter in the Chukchi Sea, and gave hope Nordenskiold barter with local people, the Chukchi. The next summer, the Vega was released from the ice and managed to get to Yokohama in Japan. Became the first sailor to postage over the Northeast. The largest group of islands in the Kara Sea, the archipelago Nordenskiold, bears his name in his honor.
The Santa Ana, one of the ships trapped in ice.
1912 was a tragic year for the Russian arctic explorers. In that fateful year the sea is not thawed completely and large icebergs blocked the path to the northeast. Three expeditions were willing to cross the Kara Sea were trapped and did not survive: that of Georgy Sedov, Foka on the ship, that of Georgy Brusilov in Santa Ana and Vladimir Rusanova in Gercules. Sedov was intended to reach the Land of Jose Francisco by boat, leaving a deposit there and sled to reach the North Pole. Due to the large volume of ice, the ship was only able to reach Novaya Zemlya on the first summer and winter in Tierra de Francisco Jose. In February 1914 he addressed the Sedov Polo with two crew and three sledges, but fell ill and died on the island Rudolf.
Brusilov trying to navigate through the passage of the Northeast when he was trapped by ice in the Kara Sea and dragged to drift toward the north for over two years, reaching a latitude of 17 N. 83A Thirteen men, led by Valerian Albanov, left the boat and began to walk across the ice of the Earth Jose Francisco, but only Albanov and a sailor (Alexander Konrad) survived after a horrific ordeal of three months. In the same year issued Rusanova was lost in the Kara Sea. The prolonged absence of news on these expeditions the public’s attention, and organized some small rescue expeditions, including five flights of the pioneering pilot Jan Nagorski on the sea and ice from the northwestern coast of Novaya Zemlya.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the scale and scope of the Exploration of the Sea of Kara increased significantly as part of the development work of the Northern Sea Route. Increase the number of polar stations, five of which already existed in 1917, providing weather reports, ice reconnaissance and radio installations. 24 stations in 1932 had in 1948 about 80 and in the 1970s more than 100. The use of icebreakers and, later, aircraft are widely used as platforms for scientific work. In 1929 and 1930 the icebreaker Sedov groups led scientists to Severnaya Zemlya, the last large piece of territory is not known in the Soviet Arctic, and the archipelago was completely mapped by Georgy Ushakov between 1930 and 1932.
Particularly noteworthy are three icebreaker cruises Sadko, which went more north than the majority in 1935 and 1936 the last unexplored areas in the northern Kara Sea were examined and the small island and recondita Ushakov was discovered.
In the summer of 1942, submarines and warships of the German Kriegsmarine, entered the Kara Sea in order to destroy the largest number of Russian vessels as possible. This bell was called to naval “Operation Wunderland. His success was limited by the presence of icebergs, as well as bad weather and fog, to protect more effectively the Soviets ships that they themselves could have done in better weather conditions were adequate.
Currently there is concern about levels of nuclear waste to the former Soviet Union poured into the sea, which included six to ten nuclear submarines, nuclear reactors, and the effect this will have on the marine environment.

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